Hand Talk refers to Plains Indian Sign Language (PISL) that historically served various social and discourse functions within and between numerous American Indian communities of the Great Plains and other cultural groups bordering this geographic area. Classified in the Sign Language family, PISL is distinct from American Sign Language (ASL) that is used in Deaf communities of the US and Canada. The use of PISL has dramatically declined from its widespread use as a lingua franca in previous times. Although PISL is an endangered language, it has not vanished. Our project is documenting that PISL is still being learned and used today within some native groups in traditional storytelling, rituals, and conversational narratives by both deaf and hearing American Indians among the Northern Cheyenne, Blackfeet, Crow, and Assiniboine/Nakota.